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the metals — pose an unacceptable risk to insects and small birds and animals. Based on the results of the risk assessment, EPA determined that the response action for the three units was necessary to:

Anticipated Cleanup Schedule

The anticipated schedule for the cleanup outlined on the Proposed Plan is:

Summer – Fall 1999

  • Prepare closure design and complete permitting

Fall 1999 – Spring 2000

  • Conduct Site preparations and import cover soil

Spring 2000 – Fall 2001

  • Implement basin closures

Other Site Management Units

EPA divided the Avtex site into eight management units to organize the investigation and cleanup of the 440- acre site. The five remaining units are:

  • On-site Soils, which includes the soil around the buildings;
  • Remaining buildings and sewers;
  • Viscose Basins 1 through 8 and the on-site landfill;
  • Viscoe Basin 9 through 11 and the associated Ground Water Plume;
  • Shenandoah River

These five units will be subjects of future proposed plans.

  • Reduce future risks to the environment from sludges and fly ash moving off-site during floods or windy conditions.
  • Reduce potential risk to aquatic and wildlife from direct contact with uncovered waste.

In accordance with the National Contingency Plan, EPA designated this response action to be a Non-Time Critical Removal Action.

Components of the Proposed Plan

EPA has proposed several cleanup alternatives for each unit. EPA’s preferred response action for each of the three units will meet the objectives of: 1) protecting public health and the environment; 2) complying with identified Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs), particularly Virginia’s solid-waste management closure regulations; and 3) ensuring consistency with the conceptual site reuse plan.

  • Sulfate Basin Alternatives

Alternative SB 1: Eliminate SB 5 and Install Simple Soil Cover on SB 1-4E. This alternative consists of eliminating SB5, installing a two-foot-thick-soil cover on SBs 1-4E, post-closure maintenance, groundwater monitoring, and using institutional controls to prevent disturbance of the soil cover. The sludge would be

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The three units addressed in the Proposed Plan are the sulfate Basins, Wastewater Treatment Plant Basins, and Fly, Ash Basins and Stockpile.


removed from SB 5 and placed in SBs l-4E, any contaminated soil would also be removed, the excavated area would be regraded and vegetated and the area returned to the pre-development condition.

Alternative SB 2: Eliminate SB 5 and Install Enhanced Soil Cover on SB 1.4E. This alternative consists of eliminating SB 5, installing an "enhanced" soil cover on SBs 1-4E, post-closure maintenance, groundwater monitoring and using institutional controls to prevent disturbance of the soil cover.

EPA’S recommended alternative for the response action for the Sulfate Basins is the Alternative SB 2.

  • Wastewater Treatment Plant Basins

Alternative WIT/B 1: Cover with Soil In-place. This alternative consists of regrading and installing a soil cover over the basins in their current configuration, post-closure maintenance, groundwater monitoring, and using institutional controls to prevent disturbance of the soil coves

Alternative WWB 2: Consolidate Sludge in PolishingBasin 1 and Cover with Soil. This alternative consists of consolidating the sludge into one of the WWBs (polishing basin), installing a soil cover, post.. dosure cover maintenance, ground-water monitoring, and using institu-

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